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Figure 4.

Serum sensitivity of HIV-1 propagated in PBMCs from ABO-defined donors. (A) Serum sensitivity of SF162 grown in PBMCs from ABO-secreting donors in the presence of autologous serum. Virus (200 FFU) was incubated for 1 hour at 37°C with varying concentrations of donor serum diluted against a constant background of matched heat-inactivated serum so that total serum concentration was 10%. The viruses were then plated onto target NP2CD4CCR5 cells, and virus infection was scored by in situ p24 staining 72 hours later. The results are expressed as the percentage of viral infection compared with the matched HI control. Diamonds (♦), squares (▪), and triangles (▴) represent viral infections in the presence of O, A, or B sera, respectively. Error bars represent ± SEM. (B) HIV-1 89.6, 2028, or SF-2 from ABO-defined PBMCs were treated as in panel A. Results represent the percentage infection of these viruses in 10% O (▪), A(□), and B (▦) serum compared with a matched HI control.

Arendrup et al 21 demonstrated neutralization of HIV-1 from an A donor with a mouse monoclonal anti-A. With the monoclonals available to us, however, we failed to detect any neutralization in our system (not shown), and, furthermore, heat-inactivated serum failed to neutralize the viruses in our assays. Our data are consistent with a recent report showing that measles virus raised in HeLa cells, transfected with A or B transferases, was serum sensitive in an ABO-dependent manner. 22 The level of inactivation (around 40%-50%) was similar in this study.

Importantly, we have extended our studies to show that HIV-1 grown in primary lymphocytes supplemented with autologous serum acquire ABO antigens. While lymphocytes do not normally express ABO transferases, they can acquire the antigens passively from serum. 3 - 5 Consistent with this, viruses derived from PBMCs grown in autologous sera displayed ABO sensitivity. Arendrup et al 21 have also speculated that blood group expression may be induced during viral replication in T cells. We are currently investigating this possibility.

It is interesting to note that, while much research has been devoted to searching for genetic factors that confer resistance to HIV-1 transmission, the most notable being the MHC and CCR5 loci, 33 , 34 little is known about the role that some of the most well-studied blood group polymorphisms may play in viral transmission. The sensitivity of cells expressing α(1-3)α-galactosyltransferase, and viruses derived from them, to human sera is a major barrier to xenotransplantation and zoonosis because up to 5% of total IgM reacts against this antigen. 19 Similarly, anti-ABO responses are strong enough to lead to life-threatening hemolytic shock and transplant rejection. ABO antigens can be added to both N - and O -linked glycans. While many N -linked glycans of gp120 are highly mannosylated, the majority of the O -linked glycans have mature structures. 15 - 17 The HIV envelope is known to contain cellular glycoproteins and glycolipids, 18 which may also carry sugar antigens. It should be borne in mind that the incorporation of the complement regulatory proteins, CD55 and CD59, are known to help protect virions from complement attack, 35 and the relative weakness of the serum sensitivity observed might reflect this.

Basic info at a glance: Where: Times: Travel: Writers:

Programme: The programme for the day will be live soon, but a brief breakdown of the day is as follows: 10.00: refreshments registration (choose workshop preferences) 10.30: introduction / guest performance 11.00: panel QA with 4 writers 11.30: 9 workshops talks running 12.45: lunch, networking, guest performances 2.00 panel QA with 4 writers 2.30: 9 workshops talks running 3.45: Tea cake break 4.20: Open mic/ prize giving to winners of Hive Young Writers competition 5.30: Poetry Slam competition – warm and supportive! 6.30 – End


Cost: The whole day will cost just £6.50 including ALL workshops, talks lunch! Get tickets page We have made the day as cheap as possible to support access and encourage young writers to travel so there is no concession ticket. If a discounted ticket would help because of long distance travel costs, please get in touch. Also note, advance train tickets can be a real bargain if you are coming a distance but don’t leave it too near the time!

Cost: The whole day will cost just £6.50 including ALL workshops, talks lunch! Get tickets page

NEWSFLASH!! We are sold out! We do hope you got a ticket in time!


Tickets must be purchased in advance via: 1) Eventbrite:£6.50 + 90p booking fee (£7.40) Eventbrite book here As a small team, we’d appreciateyou using Eventbrite where possible, but i f you have any issues or difficultiespaying throughthe Eventbrite system, or funds mean you need to avoid the 90p booking fee, drop us a line. If you have online banking, a bank transfer is an option. Or ifessential, we can do paypal. Please try and use Eventbrite though if possible – we thank you! Note: Please don’t leave purchasinga ticket until last minute, we don’t know how quick they will sell ( they will they go up slightly for the last week or so as above) 2) Hive groups: If you are a member of a Hive young writers group in Sheffield, Barnsley, Doncaster and Rotherham, please book only via the writerwho runs your group 3) Coming as a groups If you would like to come as a group, please get in touch via info@hivesouthyorkshire.com Group discounts available to support travel costs. If you run a young writers’ group in the North, please get in touchas we’d love to have your group at the festival.

Tickets must be purchased in advance via: 1) Eventbrite:£6.50 + 90p booking fee (£7.40) Eventbrite book here 2) Hive groups:

The European Patent Convention (EPC) ( www.european-patent-office.org/legal/epc ) allows an inventor to apply for a patent in all its member states (see Fig 1 ), 27 at present, with a single application, which is examined and eventually decided upon by the European Patent Office (EPO) ( www.european-patent-office.org ). This examination process is largely public: third parties can inspect files on the Internet and submit observations to the EPO. Parties other than the applicant are free to object to patent claims that they regard as unjustified, and interested persons and institutions—usually competing firms, but individuals and non-commercial institutions as well—can file an opposition within a period of nine months after the EPO has granted a patent. The outcome of such an opposition may be maintenance of the patent in the original or in an amended, often more restricted, form or the complete revocation of the patent. The EPO's decisions can also be appealed against before the Boards of Appeal of the EPO, an independent authority. After being granted, a European Patent is adopted as a national patent in all designated member states of the EPC. As mentioned above, patent infringement can then be prosecuted only by national courts and the same holds true for applications to invalidate a patent after the nine-month opposition period has passed. (See Fig 2 for recent numbers of European patent applications examined, granted or opposed.)

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Figure 1

Member states of the European Patent Organisation

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Figure 2

Completed patent examinations and patent oppositions at the EPO, 1998–2002.

During the 1990s the European Commission drafted a Directive to harmonize the legal system specifically for patents in biotechnology, with the aim of promoting the development of biotechnology in the EU. After ten years of discussion and close consultation with various interest groups, the European Directive on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions ( European Commission, 1998 ) was adopted in 1998 by the Council and the European parliament, and upheld by the European Court of Justice against an appeal by The Netherlands supported by Italy and Norway ( European Court of Justice, 2001 ). It was enacted into the Regulations of the EPC in 1999 by a decision of the Administrative Council of the EPO, representing all EPC member states. In addition to the requirements of the EPC, which apply to all patent applications, Directive 98/44/EC now forms the legal basis for the examination and granting of European patents in the field of biotechnology. The directive has clarified the requirements that inventors have to meet when they seek patent protection for nucleic acids or polypeptides.

The Italian Straw Hat / Photo: Peter J. Mueller
The Man of Mode / Photo: Peter J. Mueller
The Drowsy Chaperone / Photo: Stacey van Berkel
Guys Dolls / Photo: Drew Davis
Side Show / Photo: Peter J. Mueller
Black Watch / Photo: Peter J. Mueller
Die Fledermaus / Photo: Drew Davis
The Drowsy Chaperone / Photo: Stacey van Berkel
The Learned Ladies / Photo: Drew Davis
Ariadne Auf Naxos, Op. 60 / Photo: G. Allen Aycock
> School of Design Production > Undergraduate Programs > Costume Design Technology
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Costumes have the power to bring a play to life. By capturing a character’s personality and representing time and place, a costume designer’s role is integral to the success of a performance. In our undergraduate Costume Design Technology program, you will learn how to become a partner in the story telling. Our educational laboratory encompasses both traditional and emerging fields of entertainment, utilizing coursework, special projects and guest lectures.

Students will see their hard work in various fully staged productions in theater, opera, dance and film. You will be able to draw inspiration from our extensive library resources of costumes from various countries and time periods. Our rigorous curriculum will give you the opportunity to gain hands-on experience in all aspects of costume design and costume technology.


Bachelor of Fine Arts

First-Second Years During the first two years, you will take drawing, rendering, design and technology classes – the building blocks of costuming. Faculty will then review your portfolio to determine which program – Design or Technology – will be the focus of your remaining two years of study. As part of your degree, you also will take liberal arts courses .

Third-Fourth Years In the Costume Technology program, you will study advanced level pattern development and construction for live models, both flat patterning and draping. In the production class you will put your skills learned in those classes to task for school productions, holding a variety of job descriptions used in the entertainment industry.

Design program students will explore a variety of genres and concepts, as well as budgeting and resource management. You will continue working on production design assignments to support your individual portfolio needs, and work collaboratively with Costume Technology students to produce actualized costumes for school performances.


Our Costume Design and Technology graduates enjoy careers as Costume Designers, Drapers, Costume Crafts, Costume Managers, Wardrobe Managers and professors in the field. To see a sampling of their skills, you can visit various Broadway and off-Broadway productions, opera companies, view film and television as well as many other productions within the vast entertainment industry.

Related Programs


Costume Design Technology Faculty
Dedicated to creating artists, entrepreneurs and leaders.
Bill Brewer
Director of Costume Design Technology
Pamela Knourek
Co-Director of Costume Design Technology
Kjersten Lester-Moratzka
Costume Technology
Michael Sharpe
Costume Design
In the News
Learn more about the UNCSA Undergraduate and Graduate programs in Costume Design and Technology.
Students and faculty bring monsters to life for "Freak Fight" pilot

Are you ready to get your freak on? Costume and Wig and Makeup students and faculty worked to bring to life characters for a television pilot, "Freak Fight."

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